Burgundy

Burgundy (French: Bourgogne, is an historical and administrative area of east-central France. Burgundy encompasses the following four divisions: Yonne, Loire, Nièvre and Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-. Historically, "Burgundy" has signified to various political units, comprising duchies and kingdoms straddling territory from the Mediterranean to Benelux.

Name

The name originates from the Burgundians, an antique Germanic persons coming from Bornholm who inhabited in the region in the early Middle Ages. The Old Norse term for Bornholm was Burgundaholmr. An example of a similar term in recent times Scandinavia is Borgund in Norway.

History of Burgundy

Burgundy was occupied in turn by Celts, Romans (Gallo-Romans), and in the 4th century, the Romans who were then related with the Burgundians, a Germanic persons probably coming from Bornholm (Baltic Sea), who occupied there and set up their own kingdom. However, Agathias recognizes Burgunds (Βουρουγουνδοι) and Ultizurs as Bulgaric persons of Hunnic circle tribes, close allies of Turkic Cotrigurs and Utigurs. This Burgundian Empire was overpowered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks who carried on the Empire of Burgundy under their own reign.

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Afterward, the area was split between the County of Burgundy (to the east) and the Duchy of Burgundy (to the west). The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two, later turning out to be the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy developed to the French province of Franche-Comté, factually referring to the free county.

Burgundy's present day survival is ingrained in the disbanding of the Frankish Kingdom. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Empire of Lower and Upper Burgundy, the county and the duchy

In the Hundred Years' Combat, King John II of France offered the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold. The duchy later turned to be a major competitor to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both culturally and economically. In 1477, at the war of Nancy during the Burgundian Combats, the eventual duke Charles the Bold was slew in battlefield, and the Duchy itself was captured by France and became a province. However the northern part of the kingdom was seized by the Austrian Habsburgs.

With the French Revolution in the conclusion of the 18th century, the administrative entities of the provinces vanished, but were rebuilt as divisions in the Fifth Republic in the 1970s. The present-day administrative région encompasses most of the earlier duchy.

Geography

Arboretum de Pézanin
The area of Burgundy is both broader than the first Duchy of Burgundy and lesser than the region governed by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the present Netherlands to the boundary of Auvergne. Presently, Burgundy is comprised of the following initial provinces:

  • Burgundy: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, and southern half of Yonne.
    This concurs to the old duchy of Burgundy (later named the province of Burgundy). However, the first county of Burgundy (later referred to as province of Franche-Comté) is not incorporated in the Burgundy area, but it makes up the Franche-Comté area. Additionally, a small part of the duchy of Burgundy (province of Burgundy) is presently inside the Champagne-Ardenne area.

  • Nivernais: presently the department of Nièvre.
    The northern half of Yonne is a region that was not part of Burgundy (at least not since the 11th century), and was a border between Orléanais and Champagne, Île-de-France, depending from each of these provinces at varying periods in history.

Major communities

  • Dijon, Place du Bareuzai
  • Le Creusot
  • Autun
  • Auxerre
  • Beaune
  • Chalon-sur-Saône
  • Dijon
  • Le Creusot
  • Mâcon
  • Montceau-les-Mines
  • Nevers
  • Prémery
  • Sens

Climate, Culture, Politics

The climate of this area is basically oceanic (Cfb in Köppen classification), with a continental influence (sometimes referred to as a "half-continental climate").

Burgundy is one of France's major wine yielding regions. It is renowned for both its white and red wines, mostly prepared from Chardonnay grapes and Pinot noir respectively, though other grape diversities can be found, involving Gamay, Aligote, Sauvignon blanc and Pinot blanc. The area is split into the Côte-d'Or, where the most costly and prized Burgundies are found, and Beaujolais, Chablis, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon.

The quality and reputation of the uppermost wines, all together with the fact that they are frequently produced in lesser quantities, has led to high prices and high demand, with some Burgundies rating among the most costly wines in the globe.

HQ of the regional council of Burgundy in Dijon The regional council of Burgundy is the parliamentary assembly. Its HQ is in the capital city Dijon, at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille. Ever since 2004 the council is led by the Socialist François Patriat.